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Non‐demyelinating disorders mimicking and misdiagnosed as NMOSD: a literature review

Non‐demyelinating disorders mimicking and misdiagnosed as NMOSD: a literature review

Journal: European Journal of Neurology; July 11, 2023

Author(s): Pietro Zara, Alessandro Dinoto, Sara Carta, Valentina Floris, Davide Turilli, Adrian Budhram, Sergio Ferrari, Stefania Milia, Paolo Solla, Sara Mariotto, Eoin P. Flanagan, A. Sebastian Lopez Chiriboga, Elia Sechi

Non-demyelinating disorders that might be misdiagnosed as NMOSD

While it is well known that multiple sclerosis and MOGAD have similar features to NMOSD, and neurologists actively try to distinguish between these three diseases, there are a range of non-demyelinating diseases that seem similar to NMOSD and might be misdiagnosed. This study reviewed cases that were misdiagnosed as NMOSD. Conditions that might have some features in common with NMOSD and can be misdiagnosed include myelopathy, optic neuropathy, or both together, genetic/metabolic disorders, neoplasms, infections, vascular disorders, spondylosis, and other immune-mediated disorders. In many cases, misdiagnosis was because the diagnostic criteria for NMOSD were applied incorrectly. This review identifies some red flags physicians should pay attention to, to avoid misdiagnosis.

Related article: Diagnostic criteria for NMOSD

Free Access: Abstract only

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