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Advances in the long-term treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Advances in the long-term treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Journal: Journal of Nervous System Disease; February 1, 2024

Author(s): Monique Anderson, Michael Levy

Long-term treatment approaches for NMOSD

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system where myelin, the protective sheath surrounding neurons, gets eroded. occurs in approximately 1-5 individuals per 100,000 globally. It can affect the optic nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem. If left untreated, NMOSD attacks can lead to irreversible damage; therefore, treatment approaches focus on preventing repeat attacks. A better understanding of the underlying causes of NMOSD over the last 10 years has led to new FDA-approved treatments. This review discusses available approved and off-label long-term treatments used for NMOSD, treatments in the pipeline for adult and pediatric NMOSD patients, and considerations in pregnant patients and in the context of COVID-19. Patients would find this review helpful when discussing treatment options with their neurologist.

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